The primary voltage in transmission lines is usually at high levels that can damage your household electronic systems. As a result, it is imperative to step it down to the proper voltage.
Here is where the use of power transformers comes in handy. There are different transformer types. For instance, a step-up transformer is useful in increasing the voltage levels in transmission systems.
Also, there’re step-down transformers that reduce the output voltage. In this article, we are interested in the step-down transformers. We'll highlight how to wire a step-down transformer and other critical insights on it.
What is a Step Down Transformer?
Figure 1: High Voltage Power Lines
It is a transformer that reduces the primary voltage to significantly lesser secondary voltage.
So how does it do this? The control transformer will decrease voltages from high voltage power to low voltage. Also, the change will result in a shift of current from low current to high current. Electrical systems operate best under low voltage and high currents.
Due to the increase in current, A larger gauge wire is imperative in the secondary coil. A small gauge will do in the primary coil as the current is still low.
How to Wire a Step-Down Transformer
Figure 2: A 110V Step-down Transformer
Now you understand the principles of circuits in the step-down transformers. Next, let us look at the wiring process.
- First, observe the rating and schematic of your stepdown transformer. You can do this by removing the terminal connection box cover. It is at the lower side of the transformer and will only be present in high amperage transformers. In the low amperage kinds, you'll find an exposed screw terminal.
- When dealing with high amperage transformers, ensure there's adequate circuit protection before commencing. Still, taking precautions is essential even while dealing with a small control transformer.
- Remove the electrical power supplies to the transformer circuits. It is also important to put the circuit protection in off modes. Thus, when you reapply power, you'll be energizing only one end of the circuit protection at a time.
Figure 3: Electric Transient Step-Down
Understanding the terminal identification will be crucial for any type of transformer.
- If you notice indications such as H1, H2, H3, and H4, that is the high voltage end of the transformer. On the other hand, terminations such as X1, X2, X3, and X4 indicate the low voltage side. There can be variations in the interconnections as this depends on the manufacturer.
- Next, terminate the power feed wires. When using large wire lugs for this process, ensure you cut the right size of lug. Also, it is important to make sure you cut a large enough wire to fit on the female crimp.
- Using wire strippers, remove the outer cover of the wire. A knife will also do the job, but wire strippers are the best. You do not have to worry about electrical safety in this process as you have disconnected the power supplies.
- Next, insert the wire lug into the bare copper wire that you have just stripped. Crimp the connection with a crimper to create a permanent connection.
Figure 4: Copper Wires
Now, it is time to terminate the connections in the low and high sides of the transformer.
- Start with the high voltage side. Note that the terminals could be bolts. In this case, you'll need to refer to the manufacturer's torque requirements.
- After you're done with the high side, terminate the low side. Remember, we highlighted that the low side would have terminals with an X connotation. When dealing with a small transformer, you'll have X1 and X2 only. X1 will be the power side of the AC circuit. On the other hand, X2 will be the neutral or grounding end.
- Next, replace the covers and enclosures of the circuit. Do not yet connect electronic devices to the control circuit.
- Switch on the feeder power circuit to apply a high voltage to the transformer.
- Also, put on the low side safety electronic circuits control.
- Using a voltmeter, test the secondary voltage at the step-down end of the transformer. You should obtain a voltage reading that equals the manufacturer's specifications.
How to Check a Step-Down Transformer
Figure 5: Power Transformer in the Compartment
- Using a screwdriver, disconnect all the wires from the transformer. At this stage, you need to identify the wires. You can use a pen and clear tape to note down the wires and where to attach them.
- Switch the volt ohmmeter to read in ohms. At the same time, touch the red lead into the connector and the black probe onto the transformer's surface.
Figure 6: Ohm meter isolated
- Next, place the red probe on the transformer's terminals. Make sure you start with the H1 terminal, then H2, X1, and lastly, X2. You should expect a reading of infinite ohm. A reading of wide open is also alright.
- If you have a blank screen, then that is an open ohm. On the other hand, if the ohmmeter indicates 'open,' then that is an open reading. In case you obtain a resistance, there is a problem with the windings. The most probable issue is that there could be a shorting of the copper coil on the transformer's metal frame.
You can rectify this issue by replacing the transformer.
- Next, you need to confirm the continuity of the respective coils. Place the black probe of the ohmmeter on the H1 terminal and the red probe on the H2 terminal. You should obtain a resistance reading of between 3 and 100 ohms.
- Repeat the above test on the X1 and X2 terminals. You should obtain similar results. If you get a wide-open or infinite ohms reading, there is a problem with continuity. Therefore, you need to replace the transformer.
- Lastly, you need to perform the transformers isolation circuit test. Connect the red probe on H1 and the black probe on X1. You should obtain a reading of infinite ohms or wide-open. Repeat the test on H2 and X2. The reading should also be either infinite ohms or wide open.
Wiring any type of transformer should be easy as long as you understand the electronic theory. Hence, the above insights should guide you in the wiring process. Also, remember to consider the national and local codes when installing the device.
In case you have any queries about step-up and step-down transformers, talk to us.