Drill bits are delicate tools that play a critical role in the machining of different parts, whether wood or metal. Drill bits are vital and intricate tools that require a relatively fundamental understanding of how they work, the various types available, their applications, and the advantages they have over each other. This article aims to acquaint you with the different tricks and tips needed before choosing a drill .
1.Schematics Of A Drill Bit
The drill parts are essential because they tell an important story of the drill bit's characteristics and what users can do with them. So, these parts of the drill paint a perfect picture of the drill bits' different strengths and characteristics. There are several parts of the drill bits, but the most significant parts are;
Shank– this is part of the chuck's drill and is not involved in the cutting.
Flutes- This is the part of the drill responsible for cutting the material or workpiece; it is usually longer than the shank.
Neck- this is the region between the shank and the flute. Its primary purpose is to create an allowance for the chip evacuation.
Point Angle- this is the bit lip's angle with the workpiece when placed on the plane parallel to the axis. Now, most of the time, this angle is usually 118 degrees.
Lead- the lead is the flute part that carries out the active cutting of the drill bits. This lead is almost the entirety of the flute in length.
Figure 1 a typical Drill Bit
2.Drill Bit Material
Another vital aspect to be considered about drill bits is their material composition; manufacturers have different types of drill bits today due to their material composition. Many factors determine why manufacturers use different materials to produce a drill bit, the material's cost, the durability of the material, and the material's strength. There are about six major materials used in producing drill bits, namely;
- Steel Bits
- High-Speed Steel Bits
- Black Oxide-Coated High-Speed Steel Bits
- Titanium Coated Bits
- Cobalt Drill Bits
- Carbide-Tipped Drill
- Different Materials of Drill Bits
Figure 2 Different Materials of Drill Bits
The steel bits are the cheapest compared to the other materials. They are particularly suitable for cutting wood with their main disadvantage: they are susceptible to wear and tear faster than other drill bits.
Drill bits of the high-speed steel variants like the Black oxide coated bits are more suitable for cutting metals and other hard materials like hardwood or even PVC.
On the other hand, a more expensive bit like the titanium coated bits is more durable than the steel bits and the HSS variants. Specialized bits like the Cobalt Drill bits and the carbide-tipped bits are used to select applications like boring holes in tough surfaces and quickly dispel heat.
Drill Bits classification can also come in the form of the configuration of the tip of the drill bits. The shape of the drill bits' tip is a vital part of the drill because it determines the way the drill cuts the material and the type of material the drill can cut. There are three main types of drill bits tip configuration, namely:
- Conventional drill point
- Split Point bit tips
- Flat point drill bits
The conventional kind of drill bit point is popular among unskilled users, especially domestic users. This configuration is a perfect fit for almost any kind of drilling done in the house, considering the nature of materials most people use in their homes.
It makes it somewhat of a standard or one-size-fits-all equipment that a typical home should have with the only disadvantage being that it can cut sturdy materials.
The conventional drill comes on a point with an angle of about 118 degrees, with the tip of the conventional bit being very smooth coming to a slight point.
Split point bit tip, on the other hand, is a specially made bit tip only employed when a professional user is looking to drill a hole with high accuracy, and yet still maintain efficiency. This type of drilling tip is common among applications that require high precision.
Flat point drill is a type of bit tip used for sturdy materials that require a more broadened tip to withstand the tenacity needed to pierce through the material. They are mostly adaptable to power drills.
The bit works because the center point locates the bit, and the flat steel on either side cut away the timber. They are popular where users need to drill reasonably large holes and, at the same time, give a flat-bottomed hole.
Figure 3 Conventional Drill Bit
Figure 4 Flat tip drill bit
The standard for telling the size of a drill is the bot structure (shank diameter). This thickness is dependent on the type and size of the material that the user intends to drill through. For regular domestic or small-scale automated drilling, the tool will usually possess a shank thickness of about 1/2 inches. For another specialized drilling like the industrial drilling, it will require a drill to be about 1/4 or 3/8 inches.
Most drills come in a package that contains a range of sizes with the regular domestic and small-scale model having a range of values in the tune of 1/16 inch to 1/4 inch. This is somewhat different from the specialty size model with an array containing all of the domestic sizes and special sizes of 1/2,7/16, 5/16, and 3/8 inches.
Figure 5 Different Sizes of Drill Bit
The drill type the user needs depends on three major things; the nature of work done, the operation the user is looking to carry out, and the tool the user is looking to use. These factors serve as a guide to choosing the type of drill bit the user intends to use.
It prevents users from having a drill that is too strong for the workpiece, which is not cost-efficient. There are several drill types that users can examine such as;
Twist Drills- this type of drill constitutes a shorter drill bit that users adopt to cut soft materials like wood and plastic. They are most common among the domestic hardware store.
Mansory Drill Bits- is a drill bit type specially made to drill masonry, and are designed to be adaptable with the hammer drill or a standard rotary drill.
Screwdriver Bits- this is a popular type of bit used by many skilled and unskilled users. The bits are useful for inserting screws into the workpiece of different materials.
Wood spade bit- this is a bit type designed primarily for wood. They have a sharp center with a full flat tip that enables them to have a higher accuracy characteristic.
Metal bits- as the name implies, this is a bit type specially made for cutting metals. Sometimes other users use them to cut different materials other than metals, but this will only make the drill to wear faster. They twist also like the twist drill but only to a smaller degree.
Upon selecting the right drill bits needed to get your job done, another important factor that the user needs to consider is how to secure the drill bits using a chuck. The user is left to pick from either the domestic 3/8-inch chuck or the 1/2 – 5/8 inch heavy duty chucks.
Figure 6 Different Types of Drill Bit
It is safe to say that a drill bit is an essential tool with multiple applications; users can scan through this visual guide. It’s normal to find manufacturers claiming they have the best drill bits in the market. However, you can only trust a few of them. NC Cutting Tool has proved to be one of the most trusted manufacturers of drill bits today.
You should check their online catalog to purchase high-quality drill bit and other tools. You may also look through their site for more guides to buying most workshop tools.