TVS is an initial for a Transient Voltage Suppressor. We have several TVS devices for voltage suppression. These include; TVS diode circuit, bypass capacitor, Zener diodes, and the metal oxide varistor.
However, we’ll focus more on the tvs diode in this article. It is an essential type of diode because it protects the integrated circuit from Electrical Fast Transient and Electrostatic Discharge. These transient events can quickly destroy the circuit or disrupt the normal operating conditions of the circuit.
What is the Tvs Diode?
It is a solid-state P-N junction component we can come across in many electronic devices. Most importantly, its function offers transient protection to other circuit components, such as sensitive semiconductors.
(PCB board with diodes.)
Characteristics and Parameters of a Tvs Diode
A good t-v-s diode has these two characteristics. It should either be bidirectional or unidirectional.
A bidirectional diode produces a characteristic curve similarity in positive and negative directions. It means that it has a bi-directional value. However, a unidirectional diode has a more profound curve in the positive direction. To achieve the best results during the operation, connect the diode parallel with the device that required protection.
On the other hand, a unidirectional transient voltage suppressor diode is uniquely made to counteract very high peak currents. It works similarly to the avalanche diodes by rectifying the circuit in the forward direction.
Parameters to look for in a good tv diode include the;
- Reverse stand-off voltage
It is the maximum current that the protection diodes can handle.
- Peak-pulse current
It is the highest amount of energy the diode can handle.
- Breakdown voltage
It is the voltage registered when the conduction and protection of current starts.
- Clamping voltage
The maximum voltage that the circuit protection device can handle.
(example of home electronic systems that require a diode.)
Tvs Diode Circuit Work Principle
The T-V-S diode circuit is made in a way that it can respond to overvoltage effects. When these voltage levels surpass the avalanche breakdown voltage, the t-v-s suck up the temporary surplus energy from the overvoltage event. After that, it restores the system to its normal conditions.
However, the internal connections or the external events can cause these overvoltage events and short spikes. The internal conditions include faulty contact switches or inductive load switching. At the same time, lightning strikes are bound to cause momentary voltage spikes externally.
Also, transients can prove hard to anticipate. Some of these events reoccur, while others seem to occur only once. Furthermore, the length of time it takes for these events varies. Consequently, this explains why the usage of diodes is significant.
We place the diode parallel to the electronic circuit to control the current flow infiltrating at the junction. Whenever there are electrical transients, current limiting is critical.
At the junction, an event known as the clamping action takes place. This event checks the voltage to a normal operating voltage and then earths the excess current.
Types of t-v-s Diodes
There are numerous varieties of t-v-s diodes. We have the;
- Clamping voltage diode
They are also called the standard diode class. Importantly, the name refers to the clamps protecting sensitive components from high-energy events.
- Zener diodes.
Zener diodes are the most common T-V-S diode that we use in many electrical types of equipment. They are especially used in high-speed data lines and high-frequency circuits. Also, they contain a lower Zener voltage to conduct the breakdown voltage. This characteristic maintains the diode's current flowing near to the Zener voltage.
- Automotive t-vs.
Mainly used in the automobile industry to prevent the destruction of sensitive devices by short-lived currents.
Choosing a diode with ESD protection is important since not all diodes are ESD sensitive. They have been designed to protect the ICs from temporary spikes by sucking up the excess energy from the circuits. As a result, this protects them from damage.
- LitteIfuse diodes.
Littelfuse diodes are useful in connecting various circuits in electronic components. The diodes have proven to be quite affordable and efficient in the qualities they offer.
(examples of electronic components.)
How to use a T.V.S Diode in the Circuit
We use an at-v-s diode when connecting it parallel to the electronic components that need protection. The design explicitly breaks down the voltage and conducts high current amounts without experiencing destructions.
Under normal voltage levels, the diode adopts the shape of an open circuit. The clamping action occurs when there is excess energy, resulting in the divergence of the excess energy through the diode. Furthermore, when earthing has already taken place, the device resets.
Application of TVS Diode Circuit
The following equipment require the use of tv;
- Telecommunication equipment
- AC/DC power lines.
- MOS memory
- Data and signal lines.
(a photo of a microprocessor.)
The t-v-s diode is advantageous than a standard diode because it has a larger P-N junction surface area. Also, this makes it able to minimize damage by conducting higher amounts of current safely to the ground. One other special thing about their response time in detecting transient current is short. Therefore, they react quickly to control them.
We hope this article is helpful to you. For more queries, please don't hesitate to contact us.