Among different type of printed circuit boards, the single-layer printed circuit board is the basic one and quite useful in many applications such as hobby electronics board and also in professional applications such as power supplies, battery chargers, LED lightings, camera circuits, and many more, This is because of added benefits of single layer PCB designs over multi-layer PCB design which are cost if course is dilute and have large volumes to design, readily available in the market, significantly lass manufacturing faults and can be produced by standard techniques. A typical single layer PCB design has two primary layers and a third external applied layer, as shown in the figure below.
The copper layer in a single layer PCB design has a thickness ranging from 20 to 400 grams depending on board size and application. Unique layer PCB designs can operate in the temperature range from room temperature to 150oC and even higher. The practical points that need to be considered while single-layer PCB design is discussed below.
Resistance has an inverse relation with trace size, and so is the voltage drop in the circuit. Trace size can be calculated with the following formula by choosing appropriate values for length, thickness, and width.
Resistance = (Resistivity * Length) / (Thickness * Width)
Each loop of copper has some inductance and resistance involved, which makes a great noise in high-frequency circuits. Thus minimizing the loop size in the course will help in catering inductance interference in the rotation.
The separation between Power and Digital Signals:
There should be a physical distance on single layer PCB between power pads and digital routes and components. This will significantly reduce the risk of failure of digital components.
Heat dissipation of specific heat-sensitive components such as transistors and temperature resulted due to power loss over traces of single layer PCB should be addressed for proper operation of the circuit. This can be managed with the help of using the appropriate size of heat sinks.
Ground and Via:
Ground traces are always large enough to provide ideal grounding to components, and via size must be controlled as it has associated inductance and resistance with its loop. Multiple loops can lower via resistance instead of using single via.
These are some of the essential technology points which should be kept in mind while designing of single-layer PCB.